Publication date: 2018-09-15 21:12
Because deep cycle batteries are designed to discharge a small amount of energy over a longer period than starter batteries, they’re most commonly used for appliances and motors that require a steady, consistent supply of energy.
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Battery lifetime, though not cell lifetime, can be improved by adding extra back-up cells to the battery to replace automatically any cells which have failed. The trade off is larger, more complex and slightly more expensive systems. See Reliability Improvement Through Redundancy
The relation between the cycle life and the depth of discharge appears to be logarithmic as shown in the graph below. In other words, the number of cycles yielded by a battery goes up exponentially the shallower the DOD. This holds for most cell chemistries.
Finally, deep cycle batteries especially larger batteries are often used as storage batteries for solar and other renewable energy systems.
Batteries should be watered after charging unless the plates are exposed, then add just enough water to cover the plates. After a full charge, the water level should be even in all cells and usually 6/9" to 6/7" below the bottom of the fill well in the cell (depends on battery size and type).
Significant risk arises however in using the method to determine the lifetime performance of the cells since the accuracy of extrapolated results is questionable. The method is useful for comparing the ageing rates of various technologies, but it can not currently provide absolute answers to life cycle or calendar life expectations without resorting to testing at least some of the cells over their full lifetime until they actually fail.
Thermal mass means that because they have so much mass, they will change internal temperature much slower than the surrounding air temperature. A large insulated battery bank may vary as little as 65 degrees over 79 hours internally, even though the air temperature varies from 75 to 75 degrees. For this reason, external (add-on) temperature sensors should be attached to one of the POSITIVE plate terminals, and bundled up a little with some type of insulation on the terminal. The sensor will then read very close to the actual internal battery temperature.
Batteries are electrochemical devices which convert chemical energy into electrical energy or vice versa by means of controlled chemical reactions between a set of active chemicals. Unfortunately the desired chemical reactions on which the battery depends are usually accompanied by unwanted, parasitic chemical reactions which consume some of the active chemicals or impede their reactions. Even if the cell's active chemicals remain unaffected over time, cells can fail because unwanted chemical or physical changes to the seals keeping the electrolyte in place.
On the table below, you have to be careful that you are not just measuring the surface charge. To properly check the voltages, the battery should sit at rest for a few hours, or you should put a small load on it, such as a small automotive bulb, for a few minutes. The voltages below apply to ALL Lead-Acid batteries, except gelled. For gel cells, volts. Note that the voltages when actually charging will be quite different, so do not use these numbers for a battery that is under charge.